$hide=mobile

[Solutions] Baltic Way Mathematical Competition 2019

  1. For all non-negative real numbers $x,y,z$ with $x \geq y$, prove the inequality $$\frac{x^3-y^3+z^3+1}{6}\geq (x-y)\sqrt{xyz}.$$
  2. Let $(F_n)$ be the sequence defined recursively by $F_1=F_2=1$ and $F_{n+1}=F_n+F_{n-1}$ for $n\geq 2$. Find all pairs of positive integers $(x,y)$ such that $$5F_x-3F_y=1.$$
  3. Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $$f(xf(y)-y^2)=(y+1)f(x-y),\,\forall x,y\in\mathbb{R}.$$
  4. Determine all integers $n$ for which there exist an integer $k\geq 2$ and positive integers $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_k$ so that $$x_1x_2+x_2x_3+\ldots+x_{k-1}x_k=n \quad \text{and} \quad  x_1+x_2+\ldots+x_k=2019.$$
  5. The $2m$ numbers $$1\cdot 2, 2\cdot 3, 3\cdot 4,\ldots,2m(2m+1)$$are written on a blackboard, where $m\geq 2$ is an integer. A move consists of choosing three numbers $a, b, c$, erasing them from the board and writing the single number $\dfrac{abc}{ab+bc+ca}$. After $m-1$ such moves, only two numbers will remain on the blackboard. Supposing one of these is $\dfrac{4}{3}$, show that the other is larger than $4$.
  6. Alice and Bob play the following game. They write the expressions $x + y$, $x - y$, $x^2+xy+y^2$ and $x^2-xy+y^2$ each on a separate card. The four cards are shuffled and placed face down on a table. One of the cards is turned over, revealing the expression written on it, after which Alice chooses any two of the four cards, and gives the other two to Bob. All cards are then revealed. Now Alice picks one of the variables $x$ and $y$, assigns a real value to it, and tells Bob what value she assigned and to which variable. Then Bob assigns a real value to the other variable. Finally, they both evaluate the product of the expressions on their two cards. Whoever gets the larger result, wins. Which player, if any, has a winning strategy? 
  7. Find the smallest integer $k \geq 2$ such that for every partition of the set $\{2, 3,\ldots, k\}$ into two parts, at least one of these parts contains (not necessarily distinct) numbers $a$, $b$ and $c$ with $ab = c$.
  8. There are $2019$ cities in the country of Balticwayland. Some pairs of cities are connected by non-intersecting bidirectional roads, each road connecting exactly 2 cities. It is known that for every pair of cities $A$ and $B$ it is possible to drive from $A$ to $B$ using at most $2$ roads. There are $62$ cops trying to catch a robber. The cops and robber all know each others’ locations at all times. Each night, the robber can choose to stay in her current city or move to a neighbouring city via a direct road. Each day, each cop has the same choice of staying or moving, and they coordinate their actions. The robber is caught if she is in the same city as a cop at any time. Prove that the cops can always catch the robber 
  9. For a positive integer $n$, consider all nonincreasing functions $f : \{1,\ldots,n\}\to\{1,\ldots,n\}$. Some of them have a fixed point (i.e. a $c$ such that $f(c) = c$), some do not. Determine the difference between the sizes of the two sets of functions. Remark. A function $f$ is nonincreasing if $f(x) \geq f(y)$ holds for all $x \leq y$.
  10. There are $2019$ points given in the plane. A child wants to draw $k$ (closed) discs in such a manner, that for any two distinct points there exists a disc that contains exactly one of these two points. What is the minimal $k$, such that for any initial configuration of points it is possible to draw $k$ discs with the above property? 
  11. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $AB = AC$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$. Let the circles with diameters $AC$ and $BM$ intersect at points $M$ and $P$. Let $MP$ intersect $AB$ at $Q$. Let $R$ be a point on $AP$ such that $QR \parallel BP$. Prove that $CP$ bisects $\angle RCB$. 
  12. Let $ABC$ be a triangle and $H$ its orthocenter. Let $D$ be a point lying on the segment $AC$ and let $E$ be the point on the line $BC$ such that $BC\perp DE$. Prove that $EH\perp BD$ if and only if $BD$ bisects $AE$.
  13. Let $ABCDEF$ be a convex hexagon in which $AB=AF$, $BC=CD$, $DE=EF$ and $\angle ABC = \angle EFA = 90^{\circ}$. Prove that $AD\perp CE$. 
  14. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle ABC = 90^{\circ}$, and let $H$ be the foot of the altitude from $B$. The points $M$ and $N$ are the midpoints of the segments $AH$ and $CH$, respectively. Let $P$ and $Q$ be the second points of intersection of the circumcircle of the triangle $ABC$ with the lines $BM$ and $BN$, respectively. The segments $AQ$ and $CP$ intersect at the point $R$. Prove that the line $BR$ passes through the midpoint of the segment $MN$. 
  15. Let $n \geq 4$, and consider a (not necessarily convex) polygon $P_1P_2\ldots P_n$ in the plane. Suppose that, for each $P_k$, there is a unique vertex $Q_k\ne P_k$ among $P_1,\ldots, P_n$ that lies closest to it. The polygon is then said to be hostile if $Q_k\ne P_{k\pm 1}$ for all $k$ (where $P_0 = P_n$, $P_{n+1} = P_1$). a) Prove that no hostile polygon is convex. b) Find all $n \geq 4$ for which there exists a hostile $n$-gon. 
  16. For a positive integer $N$, let $f(N)$ be the number of ordered pairs of positive integers $(a,b)$ such that the number $\dfrac{ab}{a+b}$ is a divisor of $N$. Prove that $f(N)$ is always a perfect square. 
  17. Let $p$ be an odd prime. Show that for every integer $c$, there exists an integer $a$ such that $$a^{\frac{p+1}{2}} + (a+c)^{\frac{p+1}{2}} \equiv c\pmod p.$$
  18. Let $a,b$, and $c$ be odd positive integers such that $a$ is not a perfect square and $$a^2+a+1 = 3(b^2+b+1)(c^2+c+1).$$Prove that at least one of the numbers $b^2+b+1$ and $c^2+c+1$ is composite. 
  19. Prove that the equation $7^x=1+y^2+z^2$ has no solutions over positive integers. 
  20. Let us consider a polynomial $P(x)$ with integers coefficients satisfying $$P(-1)=-4,\ P(-3)=-40,\text{ and } P(-5)=-156.$$What is the largest possible number of integers $x$ satisfying $$P(P(x))=x^2?$$

Post a Comment


$hide=home

$hide=mobile$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

$show=mobile$type=complex$c=6$spa=0$t=oot$h=1$sn=0$rm=0$m=0$l=0$src=random$sn=0

$hide=post$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Kỷ Yếu$cl=violet$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Journals$cl=green$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Name

Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,16,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,47,Bắc Giang,45,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,8,Bắc Ninh,43,Bắc Trung Bộ,8,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,43,Benelux,13,Bình Định,39,Bình Dương,19,Bình Phước,37,Bình Thuận,30,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,12,Cần Thơ,13,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,308,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,122,Chuyên Sư Phạm,30,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,603,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,51,Đắk Nông,5,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1500,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,7,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,46,Đồng Tháp,50,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,31,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,25,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,24,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,25,Hà Nội,220,Hà Tĩnh,66,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,46,Hải Phòng,40,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,32,HKUST,6,Hòa Bình,12,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,7,HSG 10,91,HSG 11,78,HSG 12,523,HSG 9,373,HSG Cấp Trường,76,HSG Quốc Gia,97,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,28,Hương Sơn,1,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,24,IMO,51,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,303,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,14,KHTN,49,Kiên Giang,61,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,17,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,31,Lạng Sơn,18,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,11,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,41,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,430,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,218,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYM,74,MYTS,4,Nam Định,30,Nam Phi,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,48,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,38,Ninh Thuận,14,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,94,Olympic 10/3,3,Olympic 11,86,Olympic 12,28,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,19,Olympic 30/4,65,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,10,Olympic Toán,292,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,26,Phú Yên,24,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,10,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,41,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,39,Quảng Nam,28,Quảng Ngãi,31,Quảng Ninh,41,Quảng Trị,23,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,68,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,22,Shortlists,55,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,27,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,3,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,4,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,25,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,37,Thái Nguyên,33,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,54,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,18,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TP Hồ Chí Minh,112,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,33,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,24,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,17,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,64,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,1,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,26,Vĩnh Long,18,Vĩnh Phúc,58,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,42,VNTST,20,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,25,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,16,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
ltr
item
MOlympiad: [Solutions] Baltic Way Mathematical Competition 2019
[Solutions] Baltic Way Mathematical Competition 2019
MOlympiad
https://www.molympiad.xyz/2019/12/baltic-way-mathematical-2019.html
https://www.molympiad.xyz/
https://www.molympiad.xyz/
https://www.molympiad.xyz/2019/12/baltic-way-mathematical-2019.html
true
2506595080985176441
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy