$hide=mobile

[Shortlists & Solutions] International Mathematical Olympiad 2018

Algebra

  1. Let $\mathbb{Q}_{>0}$ denote the set of all positive rational numbers. Determine all functions $f:\mathbb{Q}_{>0}\to \mathbb{Q}_{>0}$ satisfying $$f(x^2f(y)^2)=f(x)^2f(y)$$for all $x,y\in\mathbb{Q}_{>0}$
  2. Find all integers $n \geq 3$ for which there exist real numbers $a_1, a_2, \dots a_{n + 2}$ satisfying $a_{n + 1} = a_1$, $a_{n + 2} = a_2$ and $$a_ia_{i + 1} + 1 = a_{i + 2},$$for $i = 1, 2, \dots, n$.
  3. Given any set $S$ of postive integers, show that at least one of the following two assertions holds
    • There exist distinct finite subsets $F$ and $G$ of $S$ such that $\sum_{x\in F}1/x=\sum_{x\in G}1/x$;
    • There exists a positive rational number $r<1$ such that $\sum_{x\in F}1/x\neq r$ for all finite subsets $F$ of $S$.
  4. Let $a_0,a_1,a_2,\dots $ be a sequence of real numbers such that $a_0=0, a_1=1,$ and for every $n\geq 2$ there exists $1\geq k \geq n$ satisfying $$a_n=\frac{a_{n-1}+\dots + a_{n-k}}{k}.$$ Find the maximum possible value of $a_{2018}-a_{2017}$.
  5. Determine all functions $f:(0,\infty)\to\mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$\left(x+\frac{1}{x}\right)f(y)=f(xy)+f\left(\frac{y}{x}\right)$$for all $x,y>0$.
  6. Let $m,n\geq 2$ be integers. Let $f(x_1,\dots, x_n)$ be a polynomial with real coefficients such that $$f(x_1,\dots, x_n)=\left\lfloor \frac{x_1+\dots + x_n}{m} \right\rfloor$$ for every $x_1,\dots, x_n\in \{0,1,\dots, m-1\}$. Prove that the total degree of $f$ is at least $n$.
  7. Find the maximal value of \[S = \sqrt[3]{\frac{a}{b+7}} + \sqrt[3]{\frac{b}{c+7}} + \sqrt[3]{\frac{c}{d+7}} + \sqrt[3]{\frac{d}{a+7}},\] where $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$ are nonnegative real numbers which satisfy $a+b+c+d = 100$.

Combinatorics

  1. Let $n\geqslant 3$ be an integer. Prove that there exists a set $S$ of $2n$ positive integers satisfying the following property: For every $m=2,3,...,n$ the set $S$ can be partitioned into two subsets with equal sums of elements, with one of subsets of cardinality $m$.
  2. A site is any point $(x, y)$ in the plane such that $x$ and $y$ are both positive integers less than or equal to $20$. Initially, each of the 400 sites is unoccupied. Amy and Ben take turns placing stones with Amy going first. On her turn, Amy places a new red stone on an unoccupied site such that the distance between any two sites occupied by red stones is not equal to $\sqrt{5}$. On his turn, Ben places a new blue stone on any unoccupied site. (A site occupied by a blue stone is allowed to be at any distance from any other occupied site.) They stop as soon as a player cannot place a stone. Find the greatest $K$ such that Amy can ensure that she places at least $K$ red stones, no matter how Ben places his blue stones.
  3. Let $n$ be a given positive integer. Sisyphus performs a sequence of turns on a board consisting of $n + 1$ squares in a row, numbered $0$ to $n$ from left to right. Initially, $n$ stones are put into square $0$, and the other squares are empty. At every turn, Sisyphus chooses any nonempty square, say with $k$ stones, takes one of these stones and moves it to the right by at most $k$ squares (the stone should say within the board). Sisyphus' aim is to move all $n$ stones to square $n$. Prove that Sisyphus cannot reach the aim in less than \[ \left \lceil \frac{n}{1} \right \rceil + \left \lceil \frac{n}{2} \right \rceil + \left \lceil \frac{n}{3} \right \rceil + \dots + \left \lceil \frac{n}{n} \right \rceil \]turns. (As usual, $\lceil x \rceil$ stands for the least integer not smaller than $x$.)
  4. An anti-Pascal triangle is an equilateral triangular array of numbers such that, except for the numbers in the bottom row, each number is the absolute value of the difference of the two numbers immediately below it. Does there exist an anti-Pascal triangle with $2018$ rows which contains every integer from $1$ to $1 + 2 + 3 + \dots + 2018$?
  5. Let $k$ be a positive integer. The organising commitee of a tennis tournament is to schedule the matches for $2k$ players so that every two players play once, each day exactly one match is played, and each player arrives to the tournament site the day of his first match, and departs the day of his last match. For every day a player is present on the tournament, the committee has to pay $1$ coin to the hotel. The organisers want to design the schedule so as to minimise the total cost of all players' stays. Determine this minimum cost
  6. Let $a$ and $b$ be distinct positive integers. The following infinite process takes place on an initially empty board.
    • If there is at least a pair of equal numbers on the board, we choose such a pair and increase one of its components by $a$ and the other by $b$.
    • If no such pair exists, we write two times the number $0$.
    Prove that, no matter how we make the choices in $i)$, operation $ii)$ will be performed only finitely many times.
  7. Consider $2018$ pairwise crossing circles no three of which are concurrent. These circles subdivide the plane into regions bounded by circular $edges$ that meet at $vertices$. Notice that there are an even number of vertices on each circle. Given the circle, alternately colour the vertices on that circle red and blue. In doing so for each circle, every vertex is coloured twice- once for each of the two circle that cross at that point. If the two colours agree at a vertex, then it is assigned that colour; otherwise, it becomes yellow. Show that, if some circle contains at least $2061$ yellow points, then the vertices of some region are all yellow.

Geometry

  1. Let $\Gamma$ be the circumcircle of acute triangle $ABC$. Points $D$ and $E$ are on segments $AB$ and $AC$ respectively such that $AD = AE$. The perpendicular bisectors of $BD$ and $CE$ intersect minor arcs $AB$ and $AC$ of $\Gamma$ at points $F$ and $G$ respectively. Prove that lines $DE$ and $FG$ are either parallel or they are the same line.
  2. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $AB=AC$, and let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$. Let $P$ be a point such that $PB<PC$ and $PA$ is parallel to $BC$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be points on the lines $PB$ and $PC$, respectively, so that $B$ lies on the segment $PX$, $C$ lies on the segment $PY$, and $\angle PXM=\angle PYM$. Prove that the quadrilateral $APXY$ is cyclic.
  3. A circle $\omega$ with radius $1$ is given. A collection $T$ of triangles is called good, if the following conditions hold: each triangle from $T$ is inscribed in $\omega$; no two triangles from $T$ have a common interior point. Determine all positive real numbers $t$ such that, for each positive integer $n$, there exists a good collection of $n$ triangles, each of perimeter greater than $t$.
  4. A point $T$ is chosen inside a triangle $ABC$. Let $A_1$, $B_1$, and $C_1$ be the reflections of $T$ in $BC$, $CA$, and $AB$, respectively. Let $\Omega$ be the circumcircle of the triangle $A_1B_1C_1$. The lines $A_1T$, $B_1T$, and $C_1T$ meet $\Omega$ again at $A_2$, $B_2$, and $C_2$, respectively. Prove that the lines $AA_2$, $BB_2$, and $CC_2$ are concurrent on $\Omega$.
  5. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcircle $\omega$ and incentre $I$. A line $\ell$ intersects the lines $AI$, $BI$, and $CI$ at points $D$, $E$, and $F$, respectively, distinct from the points $A$, $B$, $C$, and $I$. The perpendicular bisectors $x$, $y$, and $z$ of the segments $AD$, $BE$, and $CF$, respectively determine a triangle $\Theta$. Show that the circumcircle of the triangle $\Theta$ is tangent to $\Omega$.
  6. A convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ satisfies $AB\cdot CD = BC\cdot DA$. Point $X$ lies inside $ABCD$ so that $\angle{XAB} = \angle{XCD}$ and $\angle{XBC} = \angle{XDA}$. Prove that $$\angle{BXA} + \angle{DXC} = 180^\circ.$$
  7. Let $O$ be the circumcentre, and $\Omega$ be the circumcircle of an acute-angled triangle $ABC$. Let $P$ be an arbitrary point on $\Omega$, distinct from $A$, $B$, $C$, and their antipodes in $\Omega$. Denote the circumcentres of the triangles $AOP$, $BOP$, and $COP$ by $O_A$, $O_B$, and $O_C$, respectively. The lines $\ell_A$, $\ell_B$, $\ell_C$ perpendicular to $BC$, $CA$, and $AB$ pass through $O_A$, $O_B$, and $O_C$, respectively. Prove that the circumcircle of triangle formed by $\ell_A$, $\ell_B$, and $\ell_C$ is tangent to the line $OP$.

Number Theory

  1. Determine all pairs $(m, n)$ of positive integers for which there exists a positive integer $s$ such that $sm$ and $sn$ have an equal number of divisors.
  2. Let $n>1$ be a positive integer. Each cell of an $n\times n$ table contains an integer. Suppose that the following conditions are satisfied: Each number in the table is congruent to $1$ modulo $n$. The sum of numbers in any row, as well as the sum of numbers in any column, is congruent to $n$ modulo $n^2$. Let $R_i$ be the product of the numbers in the $i^{\text{th}}$ row, and $C_j$ be the product of the number in the $j^{\text{th}}$ column. Prove that the sums $R_1+\ldots R_n$ and $C_1+\ldots C_n$ are congruent modulo $n^4$.
  3. Define the sequence $a_0,a_1,a_2,\ldots$ by $a_n=2^n+2^{\lfloor n/2\rfloor}$. Prove that there are infinitely many terms of the sequence which can be expressed as a sum of (two or more) distinct terms of the sequence, as well as infinitely many of those which cannot be expressed in such a way.
  4. Let $a_1$, $a_2$, $\ldots$ be an infinite sequence of positive integers. Suppose that there is an integer $N > 1$ such that, for each $n \geq N$, the number $$\frac{a_1}{a_2} + \frac{a_2}{a_3} + \cdots + \frac{a_{n-1}}{a_n} + \frac{a_n}{a_1}$$is an integer. Prove that there is a positive integer $M$ such that $a_m = a_{m+1}$ for all $m \geq M$.
  5. Four positive integers $x,y,z$ and $t$ satisfy the relations \[ xy - zt = x + y = z + t \]Is it possible that both $xy$ and $zt$ are perfect squares?
  6. Let $f : \{ 1, 2, 3, \dots \} \to \{ 2, 3, \dots \}$ be a function such that $$f(m + n) | f(m) + f(n)$$ for all pairs $m,n$ of positive integers. Prove that there exists a positive integer $c > 1$ which divides all values of $f$.
  7. Let $n \ge 2018$ be an integer, and let $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n, b_1, b_2, \dots, b_n$ be pairwise distinct positive integers not exceeding $5n$. Suppose that the sequence \[ \frac{a_1}{b_1}, \frac{a_2}{b_2}, \dots, \frac{a_n}{b_n} \]forms an arithmetic progression. Prove that the terms of the sequence are equal.

Post a Comment


$hide=home

$hide=mobile$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

$show=mobile$type=complex$c=6$spa=0$t=oot$h=1$sn=0$rm=0$m=0$l=0$src=random$sn=0

$hide=post$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Kỷ Yếu$cl=violet$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Journals$cl=green$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Name

Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,16,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,47,Bắc Giang,45,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,8,Bắc Ninh,43,Bắc Trung Bộ,8,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,43,Benelux,13,Bình Định,39,Bình Dương,19,Bình Phước,37,Bình Thuận,30,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,12,Cần Thơ,13,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,308,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,122,Chuyên Sư Phạm,30,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,603,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,51,Đắk Nông,5,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1500,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,7,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,46,Đồng Tháp,50,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,31,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,25,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,24,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,25,Hà Nội,220,Hà Tĩnh,66,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,46,Hải Phòng,40,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,32,HKUST,6,Hòa Bình,12,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,7,HSG 10,91,HSG 11,78,HSG 12,523,HSG 9,373,HSG Cấp Trường,76,HSG Quốc Gia,97,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,28,Hương Sơn,1,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,24,IMO,51,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,303,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,14,KHTN,49,Kiên Giang,61,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,17,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,31,Lạng Sơn,18,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,11,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,41,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,430,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,218,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYM,74,MYTS,4,Nam Định,30,Nam Phi,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,48,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,38,Ninh Thuận,14,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,94,Olympic 10/3,3,Olympic 11,86,Olympic 12,28,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,19,Olympic 30/4,65,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,10,Olympic Toán,292,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,26,Phú Yên,24,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,10,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,41,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,39,Quảng Nam,28,Quảng Ngãi,31,Quảng Ninh,41,Quảng Trị,23,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,68,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,22,Shortlists,55,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,27,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,3,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,4,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,25,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,37,Thái Nguyên,33,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,54,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,18,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TP Hồ Chí Minh,112,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,33,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,24,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,17,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,64,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,1,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,26,Vĩnh Long,18,Vĩnh Phúc,58,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,42,VNTST,20,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,25,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,16,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
ltr
item
MOlympiad: [Shortlists & Solutions] International Mathematical Olympiad 2018
[Shortlists & Solutions] International Mathematical Olympiad 2018
MOlympiad
https://www.molympiad.xyz/2019/08/shortlists-solutions-international-matamtical-olympiad-2018.html
https://www.molympiad.xyz/
https://www.molympiad.xyz/
https://www.molympiad.xyz/2019/08/shortlists-solutions-international-matamtical-olympiad-2018.html
true
2506595080985176441
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy