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[Shortlists & Solutions] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2017

Algebra

  1. Let $a, b, c$ be positive real numbers such that $$a + b + c + ab + bc + ca + abc = 7.$$ Prove that $$\sqrt{a^2 + b^2 + 2 }+\sqrt{b^2 + c^2 + 2 }+\sqrt{c^2 + a^2 + 2 } \ge 6.$$
  2. Let $a$ and $b$ be positive real numbers such that $$3a^2 + 2b^2 = 3a + 2b.$$ Find the minimum value of $$A =\sqrt{\frac{a}{b(3a+2)}} + \sqrt{\frac{b}{a(2b+3)}}$$
  3. Let $a\le b\le c \le d$. Show that $$ab^3+bc^3+cd^3+da^3\ge a^2b^2+b^2c^2+c^2d^2+d^2a^2$$
  4. Let $x,y,z$ be positive integers such that $x\neq y\neq z \neq x$. Prove that $$(x+y+z)(xy+yz+zx-2)\geq 9xyz.$$ When does the equality hold?

Combinatorics

  1. Consider a regular $2n + 1$-gon $P$ in the plane, where n is a positive integer. We say that a point $S$ on one of the sides of $P$ can be seen from a point $E$ that is external to $P$, if the line segment $SE$ contains no other points that lie on the sides of $P$ except $S$. We want to color the sides of $P$ in $3$ colors, such that every side is colored in exactly one color, and each color must be used at least once. Moreover, from every point in the plane external to $P$, at most $2$ different colors on $P$ can be seen (ignore the vertices of $P$, we consider them colorless). Find the largest positive integer for which such a coloring is possible.
  2. Consider a regular $2n$-gon $ P$, $A_1,A_2,\cdots ,A_{2n}$ in the plane where $n$ is a positive integer. We say that a point $S$ on one of the sides of $P$ can be seen from a point $E$ that is external to $P$ if the line segment $SE$ contains no other points that lie on the sides of $P$ except $S$. We color the sides of $P$ in $3$ different colors (ignore the vertices of $P$, we consider them colorless), such that every side is colored in exactly one color, and each color is used at least once. Moreover ,from every point in the plane external to $P$, points of most $2$ different colors on $P$ can be seen .Find the number of distinct such colorings of $P$ (two colorings are considered distinct if at least one of sides is colored differently).
  3. We have two piles with $2000$ and $2017$ coins respectively. Ann and Bob take alternate turns making the following moves: The player whose turn is to move picks a pile with at least two coins, removes from that pile $t$ coins for some $2\le t \le 4$, and adds to the other pile $1$ coin. The players can choose a different $t$ at each turn, and the player who cannot make a move loses. If Ann plays first determine which player has a winning strategy.

Geometry

  1. Given a parallelogram $ABCD$. The line perpendicular to $AC$ passing through $C$ and the line perpendicular to $BD$ passing through $A$ intersect at point $P$. The circle centered at point $P$ and radius $PC$ intersects the line $BC$ at point $X$, ($X \ne C$) and the line $DC$ at point $Y$ ($Y \ne C$). Prove that the line $AX$ passes through the point $Y$ .
  2. Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle such that $AB$ is the shortest side of the triangle. Let $D$ be the midpoint of the side $AB$ and $P$ be an interior point of the triangle such that $\angle CAP = \angle CBP = \angle ACB$. Denote by M and $N$ the feet of the perpendiculars from $P$ to $BC$ and $AC$, respectively. Let $p$ be the line through $ M$ parallel to $AC$ and $q$ be the line through $N$ parallel to $BC$. If $p$ and $q$ intersect at $K$ prove that $D$ is the circumcenter of triangle $MNK$.
  3. Consider triangle $ABC$ such that $AB \le AC$. Point $D$ on the arc $BC$ of thecircumcirle of $ABC$ not containing point $A$ and point $E$ on side $BC$ are such that $\angle BAD = \angle CAE < \frac12 \angle BAC$. Let $S$ be the midpoint of segment $AD$. Prove that if $\angle ADE = \angle ABC - \angle ACB$ then $\angle BSC = 2 \angle BAC$.
  4. Let $ABC $ be an acute triangle such that $AB\neq AC$ with circumcircle $ \Gamma$ and circumcenter $O$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of $BC$ and $D$ be a point on $ \Gamma$ such that $AD \perp BC$. Let $T$ be a point such that $BDCT$ is a parallelogram and $Q$ a point on the same side of $BC$ as $A$ such that $\angle{BQM}=\angle{BCA}$ and $\angle{CQM}=\angle{CBA}$. Let the line $AO$ intersect $ \Gamma$ at $E$ $(E\neq A)$ and let the circumcircle of $\triangle ETQ$ intersect $ \Gamma$ at point $X\neq E$. Prove that the point $A$, $M$ and $X$ are collinear.
  5. A point $P$ lies in the interior of the triangle $ABC$. The lines $AP, BP$, and $CP$ intersect $BC$, $CA$, and $AB$ at points $D$, $E$, and $F$, respectively. Prove that if two of the quadrilaterals $ABDE$, $BCEF$, $CAFD$, $AEPF$, $BFPD$, and $CDPE$ are concyclic, then all six are concyclic.

Number Theory

  1. Determine all the sets of six consecutive positive integers such that the product of some two of them added to the product of some other two of them is equal to the product of the remaining two numbers.
  2. Determine all positive integers $n$ such that $$n^2 \mid (n - 1)!$$
  3. Find all pairs of positive integers $(x,y)$ such that $2^x + 3^y$ is a perfect square.
  4. Solve in nonnegative integers the equation $$5^t + 3^x4^y = z^2.$$
  5. Find all positive integers $n$ such that there exists a prime number $p$, such that $p^n-(p-1)^n$ is a power of $3$. (A power of $3$ is a number of the form $3^a$ where $a$ is a positive integer.)

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Name

Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,16,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,47,Bắc Giang,45,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,8,Bắc Ninh,43,Bắc Trung Bộ,8,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,43,Benelux,13,Bình Định,39,Bình Dương,19,Bình Phước,37,Bình Thuận,30,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,12,Cần Thơ,13,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,308,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,122,Chuyên Sư Phạm,30,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,603,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,51,Đắk Nông,5,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1500,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,7,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,46,Đồng Tháp,50,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,31,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,25,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,24,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,25,Hà Nội,220,Hà Tĩnh,66,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,46,Hải Phòng,40,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,32,HKUST,6,Hòa Bình,12,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,7,HSG 10,91,HSG 11,78,HSG 12,523,HSG 9,373,HSG Cấp Trường,76,HSG Quốc Gia,97,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,28,Hương Sơn,1,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,24,IMO,51,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,303,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,14,KHTN,49,Kiên Giang,61,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,17,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,31,Lạng Sơn,18,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,11,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,41,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,430,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,218,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYM,74,MYTS,4,Nam Định,30,Nam Phi,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,48,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,38,Ninh Thuận,14,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,94,Olympic 10/3,3,Olympic 11,86,Olympic 12,28,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,19,Olympic 30/4,65,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,10,Olympic Toán,292,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,26,Phú Yên,24,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,10,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,41,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,39,Quảng Nam,28,Quảng Ngãi,31,Quảng Ninh,41,Quảng Trị,23,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,68,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,22,Shortlists,55,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,27,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,3,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,4,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,25,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,37,Thái Nguyên,33,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,54,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,18,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TP Hồ Chí Minh,112,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,33,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,24,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,17,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,64,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,1,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,26,Vĩnh Long,18,Vĩnh Phúc,58,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,42,VNTST,20,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,25,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,16,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
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MOlympiad: [Shortlists & Solutions] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2017
[Shortlists & Solutions] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2017
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