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[Shortlists & Solutions] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2016

Algebra

  1. Let $a, b, c$ be positive real numbers such that $abc = 8$. Prove that $$\frac{ab + 4}{a + 2}+\frac{bc + 4}{b + 2}+\frac{ca + 4}{c + 2}\ge 6.$$
  2. Let $a,b,c$ be positive real numbers. Prove that $$\frac{8}{(a+b)^2 + 4abc} + \frac{8}{(b+c)^2 + 4abc} + \frac{8}{(a+c)^2 + 4abc} + a^2 + b^2 + c ^2 \\ \ge \frac{8}{a+3} + \frac{8}{b+3} + \frac{8}{c+3}$$
  3. Find all the pairs of integers $ (m, n)$ such that $$\sqrt {n +\sqrt {2016}} +\sqrt {m-\sqrt {2016}} \in \mathbb {Q}.$$
  4. If the non-negative reals $x,y,z$ satisfy $x^2+y^2+z^2=x+y+z$. Prove that $$\displaystyle\frac{x+1}{\sqrt{x^5+x+1}}+\frac{y+1}{\sqrt{y^5+y+1}}+\frac{z+1}{\sqrt{z^5+z+1}}\geq 3.$$ When does the equality occur?
  5. Let $x,y,z$ be positive real numbers such that $$x+y+z=\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}+\frac{1}{z}.$$ Prove that \[x+y+z\geq \sqrt{\frac{xy+1}{2}}+\sqrt{\frac{yz+1}{2}}+\sqrt{\frac{zx+1}{2}} \ .\]

Combinatorics

  1. Let $S_n$ be the sum of reciprocal values of non-zero digits of all positive integers up to (and including) $n$. For instance, $$S_{13} = \frac{1}{1}+ \frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{3}+ \frac{1}{4}+ \frac{1}{5}+ \frac{1}{6}+ \frac{1}{7}+ \frac{1}{8}+ \frac{1}{9}+ \frac{1}{1}+ \frac{1}{1}+ \frac{1}{1}+ \frac{1}{1}+ \frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{1}+ \frac{1}{3}.$$ Find the least positive integer $k$ making the number $k!\cdot S_{2016}$ an integer.
  2. The natural numbers from $1$ to $50$ are written down on the blackboard. At least how many of them should be deleted, in order that the sum of any two of the remaining numbers is not a prime?
  3. A $5 \times 5$ table is called regular if each of its cells contains one of four pairwise distinct real numbers, such that each of them occurs exactly one in every $2 \times 2$ subtable. The sum of all numbers of a regular table is called the total sum of the table. With any four numbers, one constructs all possible regular tables, computes their total sums and counts the distinct outcomes.Determine the maximum possible count.
  4. A splitting of a planar polygon is a finite set of triangles whose interiors are pairwise disjoint, and whose union is the polygon in question. Given an integer $n \ge 3$, determine the largest integer $m$ such that no planar $n$-gon splits into less than $m$ triangles.

Geometry

  1. Let ${ABC}$ be an acute angled triangle, let ${O}$ be its circumcentre, and let $D$, $E$, $F$ be points on the sides $BC$, $CA$, $AB$, respectively. The circle ${(c_1)}$ of radius ${FA}$, centered at ${F}$, crosses the segment ${OA}$ at ${A'}$ and the circumcircle ${(c)}$ of the triangle ${ABC}$again at ${K}$. Similarly, the circle ${(c_2)}$ of radius $DB$, centered at $D$, crosses the segment $\left( OB \right)$ at ${B}'$ and the circle ${(c)}$ again at ${L}$. Finally, the circle ${(c_3)}$ of radius $EC$, centered at $E$, crosses the segment $\left( OC \right)$at ${C}'$ and the circle ${(c)}$ again at ${M}$. Prove that the quadrilaterals $BKF{A}'$, $CLD{B}'$ and $AME{C}'$ are all cyclic, and their circumcircles share a common point.
  2. Let ${ABC}$ be a triangle with $\angle BAC={{60}^{{}^\circ }}$. Let $D$ and $E$ be the feet of the perpendiculars from ${A}$ to the external angle bisectors of $\angle ABC$ and $\angle ACB$, respectively. Let ${O}$ be the circumcenter of the triangle ${ABC}$. Prove that the circumcircles of the triangles ${ADE}$and ${BOC}$ are tangent to each other.
  3. A trapezoid $ABCD$ ($AB || CF$, $AB > CD$) is circumscribed. The incircle of the triangle $ABC$ touches the lines $AB$ and $AC$ at the points $M$ and $N$, respectively. Prove that the incenter of the trapezoid $ABCD$ lies on the line $MN$.
  4. Let ${ABC}$ be an acute angled triangle whose shortest side is ${BC}$. Consider a variable point ${P}$ on the side ${BC}$, and let ${D}$ and ${E}$ be points on ${AB}$ and ${AC}$, respectively, such that ${BD=BP}$ and ${CP=CE}$. Prove that, as ${P}$ traces ${BC}$, the circumcircle of the triangle ${ADE}$ passes through a fixed point.
  5. Let $ABC$ be an acute angled triangle with orthocenter ${H}$ and circumcenter ${O}$. Assume the circumcenter ${X}$ of ${BHC}$lies on the circumcircle of ${ABC}$. Reflect O across ${X}$ to obtain ${O'}$, and let the lines ${XH}$ and ${O'A}$ meet at ${K}$. Let $L,M$ and $N$ be the midpoints of $\left[ XB \right]$, $\left[ XC \right]$ and $\left[ BC \right]$, respectively. Prove that the points $K$, $L$, $M$ and $K$, $L$, $M$, $N$ are cocyclic.
  6. Given an acute triangle ${ABC}$, erect triangles ${ABD}$ and ${ACE}$ externally, so that $\angle ADB= \angle AEC=90^\circ$ and $\angle BAD= \angle CAE$. Let ${{A}_{1}}\in BC$, ${{B}_{1}}\in AC$ and ${{C}_{1}}\in AB$ be the feet of the altitudes of the triangle ${ABC}$, and let $K$ and $K$, $L$ be the midpoints of $[ B{{C}_{1}} ]$ and ${BC_1, CB_1}$, respectively. Prove that the circumcenters of the triangles $AKL$, ${{A}_{1}}{{B}_{1}}{{C}_{1}}$ and ${DEA_1}$ are collinear.
  7. Let ${AB}$ be a chord of a circle ${(c)}$ centered at ${O}$, and let ${K}$ be a point on the segment ${AB}$ such that ${AK<BK}$. Two circles through ${K}$, internally tangent to ${(c)}$ at ${A}$ and ${B}$, respectively, meet again at ${L}$. Let ${P}$ be one of the points of intersection of the line ${KL}$and the circle ${(c)}$, and let the lines ${AB}$and ${LO}$meet at ${M}$. Prove that the line ${MP}$is tangent to the circle ${(c)}$.

Number Theory

  1. Determine the largest positive integer $n$ that divides $p^6 - 1$ for all primes $p > 7$.
  2. Find the maximum number of natural numbers $x_1,x_2, ... , x_m$ satisfying the conditions
    • No $x_i - x_j , 1 \le i < j \le m$ is divisible by $11$, and
    • The sum $x_2x_3 ...x_m + x_1x_3 ... x_m + \cdot \cdot \cdot + x_1x_2... x_{m-1}$ is divisible by $11$.
  3. Find all positive integers $n$ such that the number $A_n =\frac{ 2^{4n+2}+1}{65}$ is
    a) an integer,
    b) a prime.
  4. Find all triplets of integers $(a,b,c)$ such that the number $$N = \frac{(a-b)(b-c)(c-a)}{2} + 2$$ is a power of $2016$. (A power of $2016$ is an integer of form $2016^n$ where $n$ is a non-negative integer.)
  5. Determine all four-digit numbers $\overline{abcd} $ such that $$(a + b)(a + c)(a + d)(b + c)(b + d)(c + d) =\overline{abcd}$$

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Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,16,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,47,Bắc Giang,45,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,8,Bắc Ninh,43,Bắc Trung Bộ,8,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,43,Benelux,13,Bình Định,39,Bình Dương,19,Bình Phước,37,Bình Thuận,30,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,12,Cần Thơ,13,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,308,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,122,Chuyên Sư Phạm,30,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,603,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,51,Đắk Nông,5,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1500,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,7,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,46,Đồng Tháp,50,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,31,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,25,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,24,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,25,Hà Nội,220,Hà Tĩnh,66,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,46,Hải Phòng,40,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,32,HKUST,6,Hòa Bình,12,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,7,HSG 10,91,HSG 11,78,HSG 12,523,HSG 9,373,HSG Cấp Trường,76,HSG Quốc Gia,97,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,28,Hương Sơn,1,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,24,IMO,51,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,303,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,14,KHTN,49,Kiên Giang,61,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,17,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,31,Lạng Sơn,18,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,11,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,41,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,430,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,218,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYM,74,MYTS,4,Nam Định,30,Nam Phi,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,48,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,38,Ninh Thuận,14,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,94,Olympic 10/3,3,Olympic 11,86,Olympic 12,28,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,19,Olympic 30/4,65,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,10,Olympic Toán,292,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,26,Phú Yên,24,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,10,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,41,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,39,Quảng Nam,28,Quảng Ngãi,31,Quảng Ninh,41,Quảng Trị,23,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,68,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,22,Shortlists,55,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,27,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,3,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,4,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,25,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,37,Thái Nguyên,33,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,54,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,18,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TP Hồ Chí Minh,112,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,33,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,24,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,17,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,64,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,1,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,26,Vĩnh Long,18,Vĩnh Phúc,58,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,42,VNTST,20,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,25,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,16,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
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MOlympiad: [Shortlists & Solutions] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2016
[Shortlists & Solutions] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2016
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