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[Shortlist] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2009

Algebra

  1. Determine all integers $a, b, c$ satisfying identities $$\begin{cases}a + b + c &= 15 \\ (a - 3)^3 + (b - 5)^3 + (c -7)^3 &= 540\end{cases}$$
  2. Find the maximum value of $z+x$ if $x,y,z$ are satisfying the given conditions $$\begin{cases}x^2+y^2&=4,\\ z^2+t^2&=9, \\ xt+yz&\geq 6\end{cases}$$
  3. Find all values of the real parameter $a$, for which the system $$\begin{cases}(|x| + |y| - 2)^2 &= 1,\\ y &= ax + 5\end{cases}$$ has exactly three solutions.
  4. Let $ x$, $ y$, $ z$ be real numbers such that $ 0 < x,y,z < 1$ and $$xyz = (1 - x)(1 - y)(1 - z).$$ Show that at least one of the numbers $$(1 - x)y,\quad (1 - y)z,\quad (1 - z)x$$ is greater than or equal to $ \dfrac {1}{4}$.
  5. Let $x,y,z$ be positive reals. Prove that $$(x^2+y+1)(x^2+z+1)(y^2+x+1)(y^2+z+1)(z^2+x+1)(z^2+y+1) \\ \geq (x+y+z)^6$$

Combinatorics

  1. Each one of 2009 distinct points in the plane is coloured in blue or red, so that on every blue-centered unit circle there are exactly two red points. Find the gratest possible number of blue points.
  2. Five players $(A,B,C,D,E)$ take part in a bridge tournament. Every two players must play (as partners) against every other two players. Any two given players can be partners not more than once per a day. What is the least number of days needed for this tournament?
  3. a) In how many ways can we read the word SARAJEVO from the table below, if it is allowed to jump from cell to an adjacent cell (by vertex or a side) cell?
  4. b) After the letter in one cell was deleted, only $525$ ways to read the word SARAJEVO remained. Find all possible positions of that cell.
  5. Determine all pairs of $(m, n)$ such that is possible to tile the table $ m \times n$ with figure ”corner” as in figure with condition that in that tilling does not exist rectangle (except $m \times n$) regularly covered with figures.

Geometry

  1. Parallelogram ${ABCD}$ is given with ${AC>BD}$, and ${O}$ point of intersection of ${AC}$ and ${BD}$. Circle with center at ${O}$and radius ${OA}$ intersects extensions of ${AD}$and ${AB}$ at points ${G}$ and ${L}$, respectively. Let ${Z}$ be intersection point of lines ${BD}$and ${GL}$. Prove that $\angle ZCA=90^\circ$.
  2. In right trapezoid ${ABCD \left(AB\parallel CD\right)}$ the angle at vertex B measures $75^\circ$. Point ${H}$is the foot of the perpendicular from point ${A}$ to the line ${BC}$. If ${BH=DC}$ and${AD+AH=8}$, find the area of ${ABCD}$.
  3. Parallelogram ${ABCD}$with obtuse angle $\angle ABC$ is given. After rotation of the triangle ${ACD}$ around the vertex ${C}$, we get a triangle ${CD'A'}$, such that points $B,C$ and ${D'}$are collinear. Extensions of median of triangle ${CD'A'}$ that passes through ${D'}$intersects the straight line ${BD}$at point ${P}$. Prove that ${PC}$is the bisector of the angle $\angle BP{D}'$.
  4. Let $ ABCDE$ be a convex pentagon such that $ AB+CD=BC+DE$ and $ k$ a circle with center on side $ AE$ that touches the sides $ AB$, $ BC$, $ CD$ and $ DE$ at points $ P$, $ Q$, $ R$ and $ S$ (different from vertices of the pentagon) respectively. Prove that lines $ PS$ and $ AE$ are parallel.
  5. Let $A$, $B$, $C$ and ${O}$ be four points in plane, such that $\angle ABC>90^circ$ and ${OA=OB=OC}$. Define the point ${D\in AB}$ and the line ${l}$ such that $D\in l$, $AC\perp DC$ and ${l\perp AO}$. Line ${l}$ cuts ${AC}$at ${E}$ and circumcircle of ${ABC}$ at ${F}$. Prove that the circumcircles of triangles ${BEF}$and ${CFD}$are tangent at ${F}$.

Number Theory

  1. Solve in non-negative integers the equation $$2^{a}3^{b} + 9 = c^{2}$$
  2. A group of $n > 1$ pirates of different age owned total of $2009$ coins. Initially each pirate (except the youngest one) had one coin more than the next younger.
    a) Find all possible values of $n$.
    b) Every day a pirate was chosen. The chosen pirate gave a coin to each of the other pirates. If $n = 7$, find the largest possible number of coins a pirate can have after several days.
  3. Find all pairs $(x,y)$ of integers which satisfy the equation $$(x + y)^2(x^2 + y^2) = 2009^2$$
  4. Determine all prime numbers $$p_1, p_2,..., p_{12}, p_{13}, p_1 \le p_2 \le ... \le p_{12} \le p_{13}$$ such that $$p_1^2+ p_2^2+ ... + p_{12}^2 = p_{13}^2$$ and one of them is equal to $2p_1 + p_9$.
  5. Show that there are infinitely many positive integers $c$, such that the following equations both have solutions in positive integers $$\begin{cases}(x^2 - c)(y^2 -c) &= z^2 -c,\\ (x^2 + c)(y^2 - c) &= z^2 - c. \end{cases}$$

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Name

Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,16,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,47,Bắc Giang,45,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,8,Bắc Ninh,43,Bắc Trung Bộ,8,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,43,Benelux,13,Bình Định,39,Bình Dương,19,Bình Phước,37,Bình Thuận,30,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,12,Cần Thơ,13,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,308,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,122,Chuyên Sư Phạm,30,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,603,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,51,Đắk Nông,5,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1500,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,7,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,46,Đồng Tháp,50,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,31,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,25,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,24,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,25,Hà Nội,220,Hà Tĩnh,66,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,46,Hải Phòng,40,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,32,HKUST,6,Hòa Bình,12,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,7,HSG 10,91,HSG 11,78,HSG 12,523,HSG 9,373,HSG Cấp Trường,76,HSG Quốc Gia,97,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,28,Hương Sơn,1,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,24,IMO,51,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,303,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,14,KHTN,49,Kiên Giang,61,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,17,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,31,Lạng Sơn,18,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,11,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,41,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,430,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,218,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYM,74,MYTS,4,Nam Định,30,Nam Phi,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,48,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,38,Ninh Thuận,14,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,94,Olympic 10/3,3,Olympic 11,86,Olympic 12,28,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,19,Olympic 30/4,65,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,10,Olympic Toán,292,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,26,Phú Yên,24,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,10,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,41,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,39,Quảng Nam,28,Quảng Ngãi,31,Quảng Ninh,41,Quảng Trị,23,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,68,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,22,Shortlists,55,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,27,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,3,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,4,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,25,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,37,Thái Nguyên,33,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,54,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,18,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TP Hồ Chí Minh,112,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,33,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,24,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,17,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,64,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,1,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,26,Vĩnh Long,18,Vĩnh Phúc,58,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,42,VNTST,20,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,25,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,16,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
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MOlympiad: [Shortlist] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2009
[Shortlist] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2009
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