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[Shortlist] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2007

Algebra

  1. Let $a$ be positive real number such that $a^{3}=6(a+1)$. Prove that the equation $$x^{2}+ax+a^{2}-6=0$$ has no real solution.
  2. Prove that for all positive reals $a,b,c$ we have $$\frac{a^2-bc}{2a^2+bc}+\frac{b^2-ca}{2b^2+ca}+\frac{c^2-ab}{2c^2+ab}\leq 0$$
  3. Let $A$ be a set of positive integers containing the number $1$ and at least one more element. Given that for any two different elements $m, n$ of A the number $$\dfrac{m+1 }{(m+1,n+1) }$$ is also an element of $A$. Prove that $A$ coincides with the set of positive integers.
  4. Let $a$ and $ b$ be positive integers bigger than $2$. Prove that there exists a positive integer $k$ and a sequence $n_1, n_2, ..., n_k$ consisting of positive integers, such that $n_1 = a$, $n_k = b$ and $$(n_i + n_{i+1}) \mid n_in_{i+1},\,\forall i = 1,2,..., k - 1.$$
  5. The real numbers $x,y,z, m, n$ are positive, such that $m + n \ge 2$. Prove that $$x\sqrt{yz(x + my)(x + nz)} + y\sqrt{xz(y + mx)(y + nz)} + \\ + z\sqrt{xy(z + mx)(x + ny) } \le \frac{3(m + n)}{8} (x + y)(y + z)(z + x)$$

Combinatorics

  1. We call a tiling of an $m \times n$ rectangle with corners "regular" if there is no sub-rectangle which is tiled with corners. Prove that if for some $m$ and $n$ there exists a "regular" tiling of the $m \times n$ rectangular then there exists a "regular" tiling also for the $2m \times 2n $ rectangle.
  2. Given are $50$ points in the plane, no three of them belonging to a same line. Each of these points is colored using one of four given colors. Prove that there is a color and at least $130$ scalene triangles with vertices of that color.
  3. The nonnegative integer $n$ and $ (2n + 1) \times (2n + 1)$ chessboard with squares colored alternatively black and white are given. For every natural number $m$ with $1 < m < 2n+1$, an $m \times m$ square of the given chessboard that has more than half of its area colored in black, is called a $B$-square. If the given chessboard is a $B$-square, nd in terms of $n$ the total number of $B$-squares of this chessboard.

Geometry

  1. Let $M$ be interior point of the triangle $ABC$ with $\angle BAC=70^\circ$, $\angle ABC=80^\circ$, $\angle ACM=10$ and $\angle CBM=20^\circ$. Prove that $AB=MC$.
  2. Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral with $\angle{DAC}= \angle{BDC}= 36^\circ$, $\angle{CBD}= 18^\circ$ and $\angle{BAC}= 72^\circ$. The diagonals and intersect at point $P$. Determine the measure of $\angle{APD}$.
  3. Let the inscribed circle of the triangle $\vartriangle ABC$ touch side $BC$ at $M$, side $CA$ at $N$ and side $AB$ at $P$. Let $D$ be a point from $\left[ NP \right]$ such that $$\frac{DP}{DN}=\frac{BD}{CD}.$$ Show that $DM \perp PN$ .
  4. Let $S$ be a point inside $\angle pOq$, and let $k$ be a circle which contains $S$ and touches the legs $Op$ and $Oq$ in points $P$ and $Q$ respectively. Straight line $s$ parallel to $Op$ from $S$ intersects $Oq$ in a point $R$. Let $T$ be the point of intersection of the ray $PS$ and circumscribed circle of $\vartriangle SQR$ and $T \ne S$. Prove that $OT || SQ$ and $OT$ is a tangent of the circumscribed circle of $\vartriangle SQR$.

Number Theory

  1. Find all the pairs positive integers $(x, y)$ such that $$\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}+\frac{1}{[x, y]}+\frac{1}{(x, y)}=\frac{1}{2}$$ where $(x, y)$ is the greatest common divisor of $x, y$ and $[x, y]$ is the least common multiple of $x, y$.
  2. Prove that the equation $$x^{2006} - 4y^{2006} -2006 = 4y^{2007} + 2007y$$ has no solution in the set of the positive integers.
  3. Let $n > 1$ be a positive integer and $p$ a prime number such that $n \mid (p - 1) $and $p \mid (n^6 - 1)$. Prove that at least one of the numbers $p- n$ and $p + n$ is a perfect square.
  4. Let $a, b$ be two co-prime positive integers. A number is called good if it can be written in the form $ax + by$ for non-negative integers $x, y$. Define the function $f : \mathbb Z \to \mathbb Z $as $f(n) = n - n_a - n_b$, where $s_t$ represents the remainder of $s$ upon division by $t$. Show that an integer $n$ is good if and only if the infinite sequence $n, f(n), f(f(n)), ...$ contains only non-negative integers.
  5. Prove that if $ p$ is a prime number, then $ 7p+3^{p}-4$ is not a perfect square.

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Name

Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,16,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,47,Bắc Giang,45,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,8,Bắc Ninh,43,Bắc Trung Bộ,8,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,43,Benelux,13,Bình Định,39,Bình Dương,19,Bình Phước,37,Bình Thuận,30,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,12,Cần Thơ,13,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,308,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,122,Chuyên Sư Phạm,30,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,603,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,51,Đắk Nông,5,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1500,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,7,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,46,Đồng Tháp,50,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,31,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,25,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,24,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,25,Hà Nội,220,Hà Tĩnh,66,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,46,Hải Phòng,40,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,32,HKUST,6,Hòa Bình,12,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,7,HSG 10,91,HSG 11,78,HSG 12,523,HSG 9,373,HSG Cấp Trường,76,HSG Quốc Gia,97,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,28,Hương Sơn,1,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,24,IMO,51,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,303,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,14,KHTN,49,Kiên Giang,61,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,17,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,31,Lạng Sơn,18,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,11,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,41,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,430,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,218,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYM,74,MYTS,4,Nam Định,30,Nam Phi,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,48,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,38,Ninh Thuận,14,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,94,Olympic 10/3,3,Olympic 11,86,Olympic 12,28,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,19,Olympic 30/4,65,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,10,Olympic Toán,292,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,26,Phú Yên,24,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,10,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,41,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,39,Quảng Nam,28,Quảng Ngãi,31,Quảng Ninh,41,Quảng Trị,23,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,68,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,22,Shortlists,55,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,27,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,3,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,4,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,25,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,37,Thái Nguyên,33,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,54,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,18,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TP Hồ Chí Minh,112,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,33,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,24,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,17,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,64,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,1,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,26,Vĩnh Long,18,Vĩnh Phúc,58,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,42,VNTST,20,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,25,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,16,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
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MOlympiad: [Shortlist] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2007
[Shortlist] Junior Balkan Mathematical Olympiad 2007
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https://www.molympiad.xyz/2019/05/junior-balkan-mathematical-olympiad-shortlist-2007.html
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